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Food waste is a large problem in America that needs to be addressed. There are millions upon millions of pounds of food that are thrown into dumpsters. These food wastes come from farms, stores, and restraunts. If food is merely close to expiration date, or the food cannot be sold it is tossed out. As far as statistics go roughly one third of all food produced in the world is thrown out and wasted (FAO). This is a horrible practice due to its wastefulness, especially when one in six Americans face hunger. 12.3% or 15.6 million Americans face food insecurity in America today (USDA). Food insecurity is defined as “At times during the year, these households were uncertain of having, or unable to acquire, enough food to meet the needs of all their members because they had insufficient money or other resources for food.” (USDA). With so many Americans that are food insecure and approximately one third of all the worlds food being thrown out it is clear that there is a large problem. This is ethically a dilemma that cannot go on any longer. As Berry would say people in general need to be more connected to where they get their food and the processes/ wastefulness of some companies and industrial settings.


As Berry states humans in general are disconnected from the food process. This leads to consumers purchasing vegetables, fruits, and meats that are all created and harvested in industrial style farms. This can lead to a large disconnect from the consumer. He argues for people to buy locally grown food, prepare food yourself, and educate yourself on the processes and additives put into the different foods you eat. This helps to give the consumer a better understanding of what they are eating and eliminate food waste because you aren’t supporting the large industrial style farms that create massive amounts of waste. Buying locally grown food also helps to eliminate the transportation costs (environmental costs and monetary costs). Berry would also be very supportive of the many ideas used to help stop food wastes and stop food insecurity. For example, growing your own food can help to stop food wastes because you aren’t supporting the market that is very inefficient with food wastes. Another solution would be trying to close the gap on the system by using food wastes to feed animals at farms and using food that’s “expired” to feed the hungry of our country. Overall food waste and people going hungry is a large problem in our society that according to Berry the more we have to rely on industries for food the more waste we are going to inevitably produce.


All in all, ethically speaking the problem of food waste and a large amount of people being food insecure is maddening. With the large disconnect consumers have with their food in general and the overall idea of more is better the problem will continue to persist. People have little if any idea about their food, food waste and so many other things. Education and informative labels can really help but people just need to be informed and listen to Berry and some of his ideas that he lives by. Overall food waste and many people going hungry is an immense problem that needs to be addressed.



















Works Cited


“Key Statistics & Graphics.” USDA ERS – Key Statistics & Graphics, USDA, 4 Oct. 2017, http://www.ers.usda.gov/topics/food-nutrition-assistance/food-security-in-the-us/key-statistics-graphics.aspx.

“Key facts on food loss and waste you should know!” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, FAO, http://www.fao.org/save-food/resources/keyfindings/en/.

Royte, Elizabeth. “How ‘Ugly’ Fruits and Vegetables Can Help Solve World Hunger.” National Geographic, National Geographic Society, 1 Mar. 2016, http://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2016/03/global-food-waste-statistics/.



Western Influence on Third World Countries Through Tourism

The western society controls a lot of the world and everything in it. Western Society refers to the super powers of the world or first world countries. These countries have large economies and lots of infrastructure that plays a key role in how well third world countries do. Many countries rely on the western society to increase their own economy through trade or exporting goods. This is very prevalent in the tourism industry of many underdeveloped countries. They have minimal resources and infrastructure but have prime real estate locations that consist of beaches and other natural landscapes that people are willing to pay for. This leads to the idea of tourism being a good business to increase an underdeveloped countries economy and to hopefully get their population out of poverty. Western influence may seem like a good thing to these third world countries but there are many negative impacts associated with it.

The impact on of western society on third world countries through tourism leads to lot of pollution that country never previously would have had. Construction causes lots of pollution and with increased tourism more construction is needed for infrastructure. With many different vehicles being used to do construction problems lots of gas is being burned. This leads to an increase in air pollution especially from diesel vehicles. Diesel fuel when burned releases lots of different emissions that impact the air and contribute to climate change. “Diesel is also responsible for emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide” (Gray). There also is dust pollution caused from construction sites that can cause serious health problem for locals and construction workers. “Research has shown that PM10 penetrate deeply into the lungs and cause a wide range of health problems including respiratory illness, asthma, bronchitis and even cancer” (Gray). Along with dust particulates there is also diesel particulate matter than can cause serious health problems too. Another type of pollution from construction sites is water pollution. “Sources of water pollution on building sites include: diesel and oil; paint, solvents, cleaners and other harmful chemicals; and construction debris and dirt.” (Gray). Sediment runoff and other types of chemicals are all around construction sites. With any amount of rainwater, the sediment and chemicals travel towards the nearest drain and then into the local bodies of water which can cause many health concerns for humans and wildlife. Pollutants can also seep into the groundwater tainting the drinking water of the local people. Noise pollution is also present on construction sites. This can cause harm to humans hearing, cause sleep disturbances and be very annoying. Noise can also affect the wildlife, “Research has shown that high noise levels disturb the natural cycles of animals and reduces their usable habitat.” (Gray). Construction in general is a large source of pollution meaning that simply building one large hotel can lead to many negative effects on the area.

Another problem created from western society and tourism is culture shifts within the local people. The primary language spoke at most tourist locations is English. This leads to local people trying to adjust and learn new languages to keep up with tourists. Another problem is different cultures have different values that they hold in high regard. For example, in some countries wearing revealing clothing is considered offensive but tourists will still wear bathing suits etc. With tourists in these areas they typically know little to nothing of the local culture and will violate many norms offending local residents, but forcing them to adjust because tourism won’t disappear once it’s there. The whole entire culture can also be changed through everyday activities. With the introduction of western culture, there is the introduction of sports, internet, video games and other activities that tourists enjoy. This affects the younger generations of local children and other residents who now have access to these amenities. This can largely take away from the culture of the area and what it used to be. A big emphasis of western society is materialism. This can manifest in the local people and drive people to be more individualistic. “There is also a move away from family-centered and community focused behavior associated with traditional Vietnamese villages toward more urban or individualistic attitudes in which materialism and material gain are prioritized.” (Hoi An Centre for Monuments Managements and Preservation). This can lead to distinct changes in the family dynamic of local residents and their customs. Overall there are many types of culture shifts and changes that are made directly caused by tourism.

A very important part of how Western Society and tourism harm an undeveloped country is from Import and Export Leakage. Import leakage would come from the imports from western societies or the tourists home country. This would mean hotels don’t accept local foods or drinks because they don’t meet the hotels standards, (tourist’s standards). This means that the hotels or other entities in the area trying to appeal to tourists will import goods that the they are accustomed to from their home country. This causes the local people and the goods they are selling to not purchased in lieu of the imported goods from western society. This creates a large loss of monetary gain for the local people and provides them with no money, but is profitable for the Western Society. The concept of export leakage is very detrimental to underdeveloped countries too. Because the country is very poor and underdeveloped there is very little money to put into building a large expensive hotel that would be up to western society standards. This leads to foreign investors funding the construction of hotels. Once the hotels are built and filled with guests the foreign investors profit while the local people only benefit from possibly having a job at the hotel. In the end export and import leakage leads to western society having an even tighter grasp on third world countries and what they do.

All in all, the influence of western society around the world is very prevalent, especially in third world countries when it comes to tourism. Western Society causes problems through pollution, cultural changes of local people and export/import leakage. This all is very closely related with Nixon’s concept of slow violence of the poor. The concept of this is that rich nations (western society) have little care about third world countries and developing countries. Because of this lack of care, they will pollute the other countries with their trash or take advantage of them. This slow violence is very apparent through tourism. It most basically is wealthy countries getting a foothold in underdeveloped countries naturally beautiful landscapes and profiting off of them. Overall Western Society has a very strong grasp on third world countries which leads to them exploiting and taking full advantage of them.










Works Cited

Gray, Jennifer . “Pollution from Construction .” Construction Methods , Sustainable Build , 6         Sept. 2017, http://www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/pollutionfromconstruction.html.


Hoi An Centre for Monuments Managements and Preservation. The Effects of Tourism on             Culture and the Environment in Asia and the Pacific: Cultural Tourism and Heritage           Management in the World Heritage Site of the Ancient Town of Hoi An, Viet Nam. .          UNESCO, 2008.

Slow Violence



Slow Violence is very detrimental concept as defined by Nixon. It is the slow depreciation of a country through the dumping of toxic goods, trash and other environmental problems that slowly deteriorate and ruin a 3rd world or impoverished country. Most basically it is more advanced countries taking advantage of laws and regulations of other more lax 3rd world country laws and dumping their horrible waste there. As Nixon describes an example of it, “Offloading rich-nation toxins onto the world’s poorest continent would help ease the growing pressure from the rich-nation environmentalists who were campaigning against garbage dumps and industrial effluent that they condemned as health threats and found aesthetically offensive.” (Nixon). It can also be applied to the general degradation of less developed countries resources that are not environmentally sound techniques of resource extraction. This has led to the destruction of areas and humongous dumping sites among other things in these countries that make them even worse in the long run compared to what they are now. Slow violence also leads to further degradation of the people there between socioeconomic levels and overall health.  All in all, it is a very prevalent topic that happens all around the world.

Slow violence can be attributed to wealthier countries too. A common theme of wealthier countries is that more people in poverty live in cheaper housing etc. which have a higher chance of being environmentally compromised in the terms of basic thing such as dirty water, more polluted air, or higher chances of flooding etc. This has been seen throughout history in America. “The researchers found “a consistent pattern over a 30-year period of placing hazardous waste facilities in neighborhoods where poor people and people of color live.” (Erickson). In poorer areas the more affluent and those in power will take advantage of these people and locations by dumping or environmentally degrading these areas. This can also be applied to the Chesapeake Bay. The bay is taken advantage of by many companies and farmers that have little care or believe they aren’t affecting its health. They are able to pollute the bay with little economic cost to them or lax regulations on polluting. This does have a cost though at the hand of the watermen and others that enjoy the bay. They see less money for their business and lower levels of fish, crab and oysters year after year. The bay then continues to get worse and worse and more watermen are economically forced to switch jobs etc. at the hand of slow violence.

Belize is considered a 3rd world country with lots of poverty. This in my opinion would lead to the idea of slow violence being very prevalent in Belize. As this article states about Belize, “However, its forests and marine resources are under significant threat, mainly from high deforestation rates, improper solid waste management, rapid coastal development, increasing poverty, weak institutional and legal frameworks, and the recent discovery of sweet crude oil.” (Young). With such a poor environmental presence in Belize and other countries like it that are so focused on profiting and getting out of poverty environmental ethics go by the wayside for a quick dollar. This leads to further environmental degradation and over a long time period pushing the general population into further poverty. With oil also being found in Belize the government there is going to have a very difficult decision. Should they allow drilling at the cost of he environment or allow it for the economic benefits.  This is the basis of slow violence with more advanced and wealthier countries being the aggressor in the “violence” of these underdeveloped countries.

All in all, the idea of slow violence is very much true and noticeable all around the globe. From more affluent people taking advantage of lower income neighborhoods or wealthier countries taking advantage of poorer countries and dumping toxic wastes and other horrible things there it is seen everywhere. This problem needs to be corrected to help all the different people that suffer at the hand of slow violence. Stronger governments with better laws that don’t allow the country and the people to be taken advantage of are needed. That is how slow violence is so prevalent in America and in other parts of the world.



Works Cited

Erickson, Jim. “ Targeting minority, low-Income neighborhoods for hazardous waste       sites.” Targeting minority, low-Income neighborhoods for hazardous waste sites |   University of Michigan News, University of Michigan, 19 Jan. 2016,           ns.umich.edu/new/releases/23414-targeting-minority-low-income-neighborhoods-for- hazardous-waste-sites.

Nixon, Rob. Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor. Harvard Univ. Press, 2013

Young, Colin A. “Belize’s Ecosystems: Threats and Challenges to Conservation in Belize.” Tropical Conservation Science, 1 Mar. 2008,             journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/194008290800100102#articleCitationDownloadCon  tainer.

Stalking 2

Smith Island and the inhabitants of it are slowly and steadily watching their beloved island fade away into the ocean. The island has been retreating due to “erosion”, as the locals call it, for decades. The island is in serious peril in many different aspects. The island itself is being flooded with water from the rising sea level. And from sea level rise stems a lot of the other problems on smith island. The younger generation is deciding to not stay on the island for many different reasons. The watermen culture is slowly being lost as many watermen get too old for the job with a very small generation replacing them. Another large problem is that the population of smith island is steadily decreasing with less people wanting to live there. A final problem on Smith island is that the economy is drying up and decreasing for many reasons. All in all, the problems of smith island stem mainly from sea level rise and lead to the question, “What will Smith island do?”.

Smith island is a small island in the Chesapeake Bay that is about 9 miles away by boat from Crisfield. The community of Smith island is spread out over three areas called Rhodes Point, Tylerton and Ewell. There are roads linking the three areas which locals use to drive their cars or golf carts around. The island is known for its unique dialect where locals talk with speech patterns from original English. Due to their isolation from the mainland the dialect continued to grow and became more and more unique. The main industry in the island is from crabs particularly soft shell crabs and other seafood. The community was founded on the basis of living off the water and being a waterman. There is also a very strong religious aspect to the island that used to exist. Today that religious aspect is not as apparent, but the main religion of the past there was Methodism. Methodism lined up very well with the townspeople’s values and their viewpoints on the bay.  Smith island is largely considered the last pearl of the Chesapeake in the sense that it is the last true island with a unique island culture in the Chesapeake, especially in regards to the watermen there.

As pure and pristine as Smith island is there are still many problems with the area that all revolve around the fact of sea level rise and land subsidence. The Watermen culture is a largely retreating style of life on Smith Island. In the past centuries the lifestyle was somewhat lucrative and the people of that time benefited largely from the Bay and their prime location on it. Being on an island that was 9 miles away away from the main land gave the people of Smith island a huge advantage for hunting waterfowl, fishing, and crabbing. In the last two to three decades many people have had easy access to the island and fishing areas around it with the help of better and faster boats. Another point to make is that the people on Smith island have harder times crabbing, fishing and hunting with restrictions that apply to them and less bountiful harvests that in the past. “Environmental impacts in the Bay –reduced oxygen levels, high nitrogen from run-off, depleted underwater grasses and loss of wetlands–have caused declining crab population and lost revenue for Smith Island watermen.” (Smith Island Vision Plan, 10). This has led to many watermen having children that do not want to fill in for them and carry on the watermen tradition. With less profits being made year after year at Smith island from crabbing and other harvests more and more of the younger generations at Smith Island do not want to become a part of the profession. This has led to a decreased amount of watermen on the island carrying on the tradition of the Smith Island Watermen. The younger generations end up going to the mainland to find better and more profitable jobs.

In addition, the general population of Smith Island is decreasing rapidly. “The population of Smith Island has decreased significantly over the past several decades.” (Smith Island Vision Plan, 30). With less and less people living on the island and the younger generation leaving for the mainland there is a large gap in age between the elderly and the younger generation of the island. This has led to volunteer responders and firefighters having to volunteer much longer than their predecessors. Eventually they will be too old to participate in being volunteer firefighters and first responders. When his happens what generation will be on the island to help the elderly and support the community with the next closest responders being on the mainland, 45 min away by boat.“The population numbers have dropped to a point where planning for basic services and infrastructure is challenging.” (Smith Island Vision Plan, 40) This is one small aspect of why smith Islands population needs to be replaced. It has created a large strain on the town to recruit more people to come to the island. They plan to achieve this goal and others as outlined in the Smith Island vision plan, a 40 page “solution” to their islands problems.

All these problems mainly stem from the problem of sea level rise, or as the locals refer to it, Erosion. With sea level slowly, or in some cases very suddenly, rising to the inhabitants of Smith islands doorsteps they have realized the problem. The older generations have also experienced parts of the island that when they were younger disappear into the Bay. The majority of islanders do not believe in sea level rise at all though. This has led to the term erosion being used to describe their problems. With this problem in mind the Smith Islanders are desperately seeking government aide and help from the army corps of engineers to build more bulkheads and other structures to stop wave action and other natural forces from destroying the island (Smith Island Vision Plan, 12). “To date, Tylerton has taken the most aggressive steps toward shoreline protection through a combination of bulkhead installation and shoreline hardening with riprap.” (Smith Island Vision Plan, 12). In conclusion the only viable solution to the townspeople of Smith Island is hardening the shoreline and fortifying it with bulkheads, breakwaters and other anti-erosion tactics.

Will Smith Island survive the test of time with the tactic of shoreline hardening? No, not with the pattern of sea level rise being about 1 foot higher every year. At that rate Smith island will be under water within the next century. Holland island is a prime example of a similar island that existed. This island had a rich history but was slowly “eroding” away. This led to the iconic Holland Island House which was the last house on the island that was slowly and surely slipping into the Chesapeake Bay. Eventually the house collapsed completely into the Bay and the island is almost completely covered with water now. This is how smith Islands story will also be written unless serious changes are made to the environment, climate change, and other problems in the world. Unfortunately, this is almost defiantly not going to happen and Smith Island will not be here one day.

In conclusion, Smith island is eventually going to fall to the peril of the Bay. Sea level rise will inevitably keep rising and the land will continue to subside which will slowly and surely wipe away Smith Island until it is a similar and sad story like Holland Island. Bulkheads and other projects to prevent erosion will help but will not work for long. the bulkheads and other preventative measures will elongate Smith islands time by a mere blink in the eyes of nature. All in all, Smith Island is going to disappear along with the culture and lifestyle of the Iconic Smith Island Watermen. At the hand of Sea Level Rise




Works Cited

“Smith Island Vision Plan.” Smith Island, Smith Island United , washcoll-            my.sharepoint.com/personal/mhardesty2_washcoll_edu/_layouts/15/onedrive.aspx?slr id=6f97219e-f092-4000-c419             03aa59090ef7&FolderCTID=0x01200067F0F716884ADF408E64FBEA3BF0B623&id=%2Fp            ersonal%2Fmhardesty2_washcoll_edu%2FDocuments%2FChesapeake%20Semester%2F      CS%202017%2FChesapeake%20Semester%20%28Shared%29%2FJourney%202%2FReadi            ngs%2FOct%2019th%2FFinal%20Vision%20Plan%20Smith%20Island%2Epdf&parent=%2           Fpersonal%2Fmhardesty2_washcoll_edu%2FDocuments%2FChesapeake%20Semester%       2FCS%202017%2FChesapeake%20Semester%20%28Shared%29%2FJourney%202%2FRe    adings%2FOct%2019th.





Money and Nature

Humans in general have little to no respect for the land they live on. This was very apparent when tobacco was a staple crop of the Chesapeake Tide water area in the 1600s up until the 1800s. The people of this time period had little respect for the land and cared almost purely about money and power. They had a disregard for the land and a disregard for the forces of nature too. This general disregard for nature was a large part of the basic idea that humans could do whatever they wanted to the land they lived on. There basic attitude toward nature was that they had to defeat it in a way or tame it. This idea stemmed from England mainly and how England was a large city with little to no forested areas around the general public. Most basically humans of these time periods had little to no respect for nature even though they so heavily relied on it for so many things.

Many tobacco farmers of the time period from the 1600s to the 1700s profited off of nature at the expense of other humans and the land itself. As Wendell Berry states, “Humans who do not experience them (floods, rains etc.) are exempt only because they are paying (or underpaying) other humans such as farmers to deal with nature on their behalf.” (518). Slaves were the humans or farmers that suffered then. They worked the land and did whatever their masters told them to do. They were the ones that had to deal with the rain, the flooding, and all the other problems that nature may have thrown their way. More specifically they had to make sure the cultivation of tobacco went well and go through all the steps of taking care of it. Nature would present many problems for the slaves of this time period. Some of the problems would be dealing with tobacco flea beetles, cultivation, and maintenance of the plant. Meanwhile the masters are profiting off of the slaves and nature. They have little respect for nature or the slaves, but are creating large fortunes for themselves. This large neglect of the land was something that Aldo Leopold passionately describes in his writing called “The Land Ethic”. The basic idea of this writing is that humans have little connection with their land and care about it for monetary gain. As Aldo Leopold writes, “The farmers continued only those practices that yielded an immediate and visible economic gain for themselves.” (11). This pattern of disregard for land is seen today and goes all the way back into history, especially with tobacco. Overall the theme of money helping people from having to deal with nature is very apparent throughout history as well as the use of land being taken advantage of for monetary gain.

Throughout human history the advantage of wealth has benefited many while leaving other humans in the dirt. This theme is very recognizable during the height of tobacco cultivation due to slavery and its forced labor. They were the group that suffered when nature released its wrath on the land while their masters or the plantation owners benefited off of them. Another theme that goes with this is the disregard for land ethics. Plantation owners thought in a monetary sense leading to them stripping and ravaging the land with tobacco cultivation through the intense labor of slavery. All in all, tobacco horticulture clearly shows how wealth led to certain individuals not having to deal with the hardships of nature all the while having little to no ethics for the land they used.

Works Cited

Leopold, Aldo, 1886-1948. A Sand County Almanac, and Sketches Here and There.                           New York: Oxford University Press, 1949. Print.

Berry , Wendell. Preserving Wildness: An Essay. Wyoming Outdoor Council, 1986.


A Walk in the Past

Being outside in nature is one of the most priceless things humans have the ability to do. You can lose yourself in nature from admiring the wildlife, taking in the view of a large body of water, to staring at the magnificent inter workings of a tree. Taking a walk in nature is a very rewarding and awing experience. Unfortunately, not as many people in this day and age take advantage of slowing down and getting lost in nature or simply just walking. It is a basic human function that dates back to the earliest human beings. Humans then would walk around in search of food, materials, water, and other reasons. Today humans can walk on trails or through a wooded area to admire it. Walking is also linked to better health and when you walk in a natural setting such as a forest it is even healthier for you. As McCurdy states, “Walking in nature promotes total health, both physical and mental.”. It is unfortunate that not as many people today take the time to benefit from something as simple as a walk through the woods.


This disconnect between people and their natural setting is a huge problem. It goes back to Aldo Leopold and his writings on human’s land ethic. People do not care as much about the land and what grows or lives there from a natural point of view. As Richard Long says from Five, Six, pick up sticks, “A walk expresses space and freedom and the knowledge of it can live in the imagination of anyone, and that is another space too.” (565) . A walk is so much more than simply strolling down a path, it’s a journey where you mind can run free and think about whatever it wants. It is also a journey into the past. “A walk is just one more layer, a mark, laid upon thousands of other layers of human and geographic history on the surface of the land.” (Long, 565). Humans walked this earth for thousands of years before our generation. To think about another human being hundreds or thousands of years ago taking the same steps you just took is a captivating feeling. “What were they doing”, “who were they”, “why were they here” are some of the questions that could run through your brain. It’s a very mysterious feeling to think in those terms and what was happening on this land long ago. And to think something as simple as a walk can get you lost in the landscape and contemplating your own life or another person who took the same steps as you. Overall walks in nature are a common theme throughout human history that our current generation needs to take more advantage of, especially in this day and age.

All in all, a walk, the most basic idea or concept to humans, is actually a journey that can retrace human footsteps from ages ago that also benefits a person’s physical and mental health. People need to be taking more walks to benefit themselves in so many different ways. It also gves people more of a land ethic because they see all that nature has to offer. Overall a walk in the woods is much more than a few steps from point A to B, it is a journey.


Works Cited

McCurdy, Leyla. “Walking in Nature Prescription for Better Health.” Every Body Walk,        National   Environmental Education Foundation, 2 June 2017,                                              everybodywalk.org/walking-in-nature-prescription-for-better-health/.


Richard Long, Excerpt from Five Sic Pick Up Sticks (London: Anthony d’Offay Gallery, 1980); reprinted in R.H. Fuches, Richard Long (New York: Solomon R. Guggenheism Foundation, 1986), 236.

Economics vs. Land Ethics

The world revolves around the concept of money. People will do virtually anything to make money or reach economic success. This can lead to people taking advantage of others, committing crimes, or in a more common way, taking advantage of their land. People taking advantage of their lands can be seen all throughout history. The planting of tobacco for instance left the soils of the south in disarray and led to a large increase in slavery. Forestry, the iron industry, and coal mining desolated the areas surrounding the Chesapeake Bay region and elsewhere. Throughout all of history there are vast amounts of evidence of people looking to get rich quick and treating their land as a short term solution for economic gain. Unfortunately, this is the typical human nature, making money fast and doing whatever it takes to get there.


History repeats itself time and time again in the sense of economic return. As Aldo Leopold discusses, from “The Land Ethic”, the concept of how farmers from south western Wisconsin were losing all their top soil (10). The farmers were told they needed to adopt special practices for five years to help mitigate the problem with help from the public/ government for Civilian Conservation Corp labor, machinery and materials (Leopold 10). After the five year contract the farmers abandoned these practices to reduce top soil erosion (Leopold, 10-11). “The farmers continued only those practices that yielded an immediate and visible economic gain for themselves.” (Leopold, 11). This instance in history and many other like it represents the general nature of the public regarding land use. They can use it however they desire and will use it for a financial gain at the cost of the land, the waterways, the surrounding landscape, and the general public living in the vicinity.


Another instance of how money and economic gain run the world is noted in Aldo Leopold’s “The Land Use”. He examines the nature of conservation systems and how they have little impact unless they can attach an economic trait to an organism or ecosystem. “When one of these non-economic categories is threatened and if we happen to love it, we invent subterfuges to give it economic importance.” (Leopold, 14). Leopold goes into detail on song birds for instance which in reality have little economic gain but more of an intrinsic value to humans. “Ornithologists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them.” (Leopold, 14). This clearly represents the large importance that economics has in the governmental level of protection and the public’s view. With this lack of land ethics how will the world and all of its inhabitants continue to prosper with humans at the helm?


The word land ethics entails the ethic use of land by humans and how humans should use it. Today humans have little to no sense of land ethics and this can clearly be seen by where our world is headed with large problems such as pollution of waterways, climate change, and many other environmental problems. However, there are many organizations and people fighting for nature and the land, including the organisms in it. This gives hope to the current generations living on this earth and the future generations, so that they might have a world similar to how we have it. A world without exponential environmental disasters and problems that previous generations left them with to solve. All in all, we need view the world and land on it more ethically, not economically; and as Aldo Leopold said “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic community.” (Leopold, 35).


Works Cited


Leopold, Aldo, 1886-1948. A Sand County Almanac, and Sketches Here and There.     New York :Oxford University Press, 1949. Print.